The staff has 5 lines and 4 spaces.
The violin clef is the treble clef, also called the G clef. It is always placed at the beginning of the staff.
The sharp "#" raises a note one half tone. The flat "b" lowers a note one half tone. The natural indicates that the original note should be played.
If the "#" or "b" is placed after the clef, then all the notes "#" or "b" indicated after the clef will be sharp or flat throughout the piece. These accidentals also show the key of the piece and are collectively called the key signature.
Time is marked after the clef sign. There are many different kinds of times. The principal varieties are 4/4, 3/4, and 2/4. The lower 4 means that each quarter note counts as one beat. The upper 4 means that each bar or measure has four beats. If the upper number is 3, it means three beats a bar and so on.
Bars are the vertical lines that divide the staff into measures, also call bars.
Shorter lines above and below the staff are called leger lines.
At the end of the piece, the heavy double line signals the conclusion.
The names of the notes from the lowest note on the violin and up: